Tag Archives: Apex

System Mode and User Mode in Salesforce

System Mode:

  • System mode is nothing but running apex code by ignoring user’s permissions. For example, if logged in user does not have create permission but they will able to create a record.
  • In system mode, Apex code has access to all objects and fields permissions, field-level security, sharing rules aren’t applied for the current user. This is to ensure that code won’t fail to run because of hidden fields or objects for a user.
  • In Salesforce, all apex code run in system mode. It ignores user’s permissions. Only exception is anonymous blocks like developer console and standard controllers. Even runAs() method doesn’t enforce user permissions or field-level permissions, it only enforces record sharing.

User Mode:

  • User mode is nothing but running apex code by respecting user’s permissions and sharing of records. For example, if logged in user does not have create permission they are not able to create a record.
  • In User mode, Profile level permissions, field-level security, and sharing rules are applied for the current user.
  • In Salesforce, only standard controllers and anonymous blocks like developer console run in user mode.

Mode of execution:

  • Trigger – System
  • Validation Rule – System
  • Auto Response Rule – System
  • Assignment Rule – System
  • Workflow Rule – System
  • Escalation Rule – System
  • All Types of calculation behind formula, Rollup Summary – System
  • Process Builder – System
  • Visual Workflow or flow – User
    • if flow is called from Process Builder – System
    • if flow is called from Workflow – System
    • if flow is called from Apex – (depends on with or without sharing of apex class)
    • if flow is called from Custom Button – System
    • if flow is embed in Visualforce – Depends on VFP context
    • if flow is called from REST API – System
  • Approval Process – System
  • Publisher Action – System
  • InvocableMethod
    • if this is called from flow – User
    • if this is called from Process Builder (does it depends on with or without sharing is specified on that Class) – System
    • if this is called from REST API – (depends on with or without sharing of the class)
  • Custom Button – System
  • Test method with System.runAs() – User
  • Test method without System.runAs() – System
  • Visualforce Page (StandardController) – User
  • Visualforce Page (StandardController with extension) – System
  • Visualforce Page (Custom Controller)
    • depends on with or without sharing of the controller
  • Visualforce Component – depends on Visualforce page where it is used
  • Macros – System
  • Annonymous Apex – User
  • Chatter in Apex – User
  • Email Service – User
  • All types of Jobs – System
  • Apex Webservices (SOAP API and REST API) – System (Consequently, the current user’s credentials are not used, and any user who has access to these methods can use their full power, regardless of permissions, field-level security, or sharing rules.)

Create One to One Relationship in Salesforce

Basically Salesforce offers two types of relationship:

  • One To Many Relationship
  • Many To Many Relationship (Using the concept of Junction object)

Sometimes we may need One To One relationship, But unfortunately Salesforce doesn’t allow any direct methodology to build One To one relationship.

Let’s consider the scenario that we want to establish a One to One relationship between two custom objects Employee__c and PAN_Card__c.

So, here are few ways to implement One To One relationship between two objects in Salesforce. We can achieve this by using configuration only and can also achieve this by using code to make it more scalable.

Option 1:

  • Create a lookup field on PAN_Card__c to Employee__c.
  • Create a custom field on the PAN_Card__c object and make the field unique. This field would be used to hold the ID of the associated Employee__c. Hide this field from all page layouts.
  • Create a Workflow rule on PAN_Card__c. For any change of the lookup field on PAN_Card__c object, update the custom field on the PAN_Card__c object with the value of the associated Employee Id.

We have established a one to one relationship between PAN_Card__c and Employee__c. When we try to add a second PAN_Card__c to the Employee__c, the “unique” constraint would be violated and an error would be thrown. This approach will work on both standard and custom object.

Option 2:

  • Create a master detail relationship on PAN_Card__c to Employee__c object.
  • Create a roll up summary field on Employee__c object of PAN_Card__c with count type.
  • Create a validation rule on Employee__c object rollup summary field to check if count > 1.

In this way also, We have established a one to one relationship between PAN_Card__c and Employee__c. So it will throw an error if Employee__c has more than one PAN Card.

Option 3:

  • Create lookup fields on both objects PAN_Card__c and Employee__c, to each other.
  • Write triggers, for any change on these lookups, to either copy the record ID into the other object’s lookup field when the other object’s lookup field is empty, or disallow the change to the original record when the other object’s lookup field is already populated with a different ID from the original record.

This is already having a one-to-onePassport relation.

Option 4:

  • Create a trigger on PAN_Card__c object to check if the PAN Card record already exists for an Employee. If it exist, then throw an error, else allow the user to create.
    Here is the example for Employee__c and PAN_Card__c object:

    trigger PANCardValidation on PAN_Card__c (before insert, before update) {
        Set<id> employeeIds = new Set<id>();
        Map<id, Employee__c> mapEmployee = new Map<id, Employee__c>();
     
        for (PAN_Card__c p : trigger.New) {
            employeeIds.add(p.Employee__c);
        }
     
        List<Employee__c> lstEmployee = [SELECT Id, Name FROM Employee__c WHERE Id IN : employeeIds];
        if (!lstEmployee.isEmpty()) {
            for (Employee__c emp : lstEmployee) {
                mapEmployee.put(emp.Id, emp);
            }
     
            for (PAN_Card__c p : trigger.New) {
                if (mapEmployee.containsKey(p.Employee__c)) {
                    p.addError('A PAN Card already exist for the employee - ' + mapEmployee.get(p.Employee__c).Name);
                }
            }
        }
    }
    

Salesforce StandardController Methods

The following methods are for StandardController:

addFields(fieldNames)
When a Visualforce page is loaded, the fields accessible to the page are based on the fields referenced in the Visualforce markup. This method adds a reference to each field specified in fieldNames so that the controller can explicitly access those fields as well.

cancel()
Returns the PageReference of the cancel page.

delete()
Deletes record and returns the PageReference of the delete page.

edit()
Returns the PageReference of the standard edit page.

getId()
Returns the ID of the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL.

getRecord()
Returns the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL.

reset()
Forces the controller to reacquire access to newly referenced fields. Any changes made to the record prior to this method call are discarded.

save()
Saves changes and returns the updated PageReference.

view()
Returns the PageReference object of the standard detail page.

Salesforce StandardSetController Methods

The following methods are for StandardSetController:

cancel()
Returns the PageReference of the original page, if known, or the home page.

first()
Returns the first page of records.

getCompleteResult()
Indicates whether there are more records in the set than the maximum record limit. If this is false, there are more records than you can process using the list controller. The maximum record limit is 10,000 records.

getFilterId()
Returns the ID of the filter that is currently in context.

getHasNext()
Indicates whether there are more records after the current page set.

getHasPrevious()
Indicates whether there are more records before the current page set.

getListViewOptions()
Returns a list of the listviews available to the current user.

getPageNumber()
Returns the page number of the current page set. Note that the first page returns 1.

getPageSize()
Returns the number of records included in each page set.

getRecord()
Returns the sObject that represents the changes to the selected records. This retrieves the prototype object contained within the class, and is used for performing mass updates.

getRecords()
Returns the list of sObjects in the current page set. This list is immutable, i.e. you can’t call clear() on it.

getResultSize()
Returns the number of records in the set.

getSelected()
Returns the list of sObjects that have been selected.

last()
Returns the last page of records.

next()
Returns the next page of records.

previous()
Returns the previous page of records.

save()
Inserts new records or updates existing records that have been changed. After this operation is finished, it returns a PageReference to the original page, if known, or the home page.

setFilterID(filterId)
Sets the filter ID of the controller.

setpageNumber(pageNumber)
Sets the page number.

setPageSize(pageSize)
Sets the number of records in each page set.

setSelected(selectedRecords)
Set the selected records.

Function to Calculate the 18 Character ID From 15 Character ID

public String Convert15CharTo18CharId(String id) {
    String suffix = '';
    Integer flags;

    for (integer i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
        flags = 0;
        for (Integer j = 0; j < 5; j++) {
            String c = id.substring(i * 5 + j, i * 5 + j + 1);
            //Only add to flags if c is an uppercase letter:
            if (c.toUpperCase().equals(c) && c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z') {
                flags = flags + (1 << j);
            }
        }
        if (flags <= 25) {
            suffix = suffix + 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'.substring(flags, flags + 1);
        } else {
            suffix += '012345'.substring(flags - 26, flags - 25);
        }
    }
    String convertId = id + suffix;
    //18 Digit Id with checksum
    System.debug('convertId-' + convertId);
    return 18 digitId;
}

Example:

String Id = '0019000001EJNfj';
String convertedId = Convert15CharTo18CharId(Id);